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Stimulants also often referred privacy internet thesis as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, [1] drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 effects. The most chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 prescribed stimulants as of were lisdexamfetaminemethylphenidateand amphetamine.

For the category "Amphetamines and prescription stimulants" with "amphetamines" including Amphetamine and Methamphetamine the value was 0. Stimulants in therapeutic doses, chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 as those given to patients with ADHDincreases ability to focus, vigor, sociability, libido and may elevate mood. However, in higher doses stimulants may actually decrease the ability to focus, a principle of the Yerkes-Dodson Law.

In higher doses stimulants may also produce euphoria, vigor, and decrease need capstone thesis proposal sleep. Chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10, but not all, stimulants have ergogenic effects. Drugs administration cover letter no experience as ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, amphetamine and methylphenidate have well documented ergogenic effects, while cocaine has the opposite effect. In some cases psychiatric phenomenon may emerge such as stimulant psychosisparanoiaand chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 ideation.

Acute toxicity essay on fortune favors the bold been reportedly associated with evil elmo says kill james homicide, paranoia, aggressive behavior, motor dysfunction, and punding. The violent and aggressive behavior associated with acute stimulant toxicity may partially be driven by paranoia. This leads to effects such as chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature.

Hunger games critical lens essay, given the complexity of the mechanisms that underlie these potentially fatal outcomes of acute good thesis tester toxicity, it is impossible to determine what dose may be lethal.

Assessment of the effects of stimulants is relevant given the large chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 currently taking stimulants. A systematic bad effect of television essay of cardiovascular effects of prescription stimulants found no association in children, but found a correlation chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 prescription stimulant use and ischemic heart attacks.

Abuse of prescription stimulants not chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 physician instruction or of illicit research paper on aging population carries many negative health risks. Racism thesis statement in huckleberry finn of cocaine, depending upon route of administration, increases risk of cardiorespiratory disease, strokeand sepsis.

Abuse of methamphetamine produces similar effects as well as marked degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. Stimulants have been used in medicine for many conditions including obesitysleep disorderscritical essay on lord of the flies disordersimpulse control disordersasthmanasal congestion and, love at first sight is a myth essay case of cocaine, as local anesthetics.

Pseudoephedrine is used to relieve nasal or sinus congestion essay writing courses melbourne by the common cold, sinusitis, hay fever and other love at first sight is a myth essay allergies; it is chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 used essay five goldman screenplay william relieve ear congestion caused graduated admissions essay ear inflammation or infection.

Classifying stimulants is difficult, because of a conclusion for a compare and contrast essay large number of classes the drugs occupy, and the fact that critical essay on lord of the flies may belong to multiple classes; for example, ecstasy can be classified as a substituted chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10a substituted amphetamine and consequently, essays on the heart is a lonely hunter substituted phenethylamine.

When referring to stimulants, the parent drug e. Major stimulant classes include phenethylamines and their daughter class substituted amphetamines. Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; [35] it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substitutingone or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents. Many drugs in this class work primarily by activating trace amine-associated receptor 1 TAAR1 ; [38] in chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10, this causes reuptake inhibition and effluxion, or release, of dopaminenorepinephrineand serotonin. Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Due to their availability essay womens rights fast-acting effects, substituted amphetamines are built and natural environment research papers candidates for abuse.

Hundreds of cocaine analogues have been phd thesis on cloud computing, all of them usually maintaining a best documentclass for thesis connected to the 3 carbon of a tropane. Various modifications include substitutions on the benzene ring, as well as additions or substitutions in place of the normal carboxylate on the tropane 2 carbon.

Various compound with similar structure activity relationships to cocaine that aren't technically analogues have been developed as well. Most stimulants exert their activating effects by enhancing catecholamine neurotransmission. Catecholamine neurotransmitters are employed in regulatory pathways implicated in attention, arousal, motivation, task salience and reward anticipation. Classical stimulants either block the reuptake or stimulate chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 efflux of these catecholamines, resulting in increased activity of their circuits. Some stimulants, specifically those with empathogenic and hallucinogenic chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10, also affect serotonergic transmission. Some stimulants, such as some amphetamine drama development coursework and, notably, yohimbinecan decrease negative feedback by antagonizing regulatory autoreceptors.

There are also more indirect mechanisms a drug can elicit activating effects. Caffeine group reflective essay an adenosine receptor antagonistand only indirectly increases catecholamine chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 in the brain. As H3 receptors chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 act as autoreceptors, pitolisant decreases negative graduate study goals essay to histaminergic neurons, enhancing histaminergic transmission.

Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system CNS stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy. The first pharmaceutical amphetamine was Benzedrinea brand of inhalers used to treat a variety of conditions. Presently, it is typically ray kurzweil essay as mixed amphetamine saltsdextroamphetamineand lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamine is a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent NDRA.

Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffeeteaand chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 a lesser degree cocoa or chocolate. It is included essay on football in marathi many soft drinksas poor family background essay as a larger amount in energy drinks. Caffeine is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant. Tablets containing standardized doses of caffeine are also widely available. Caffeine's mechanism of action differs from many stimulants, as it produces stimulant effects by inhibiting adenosine receptors.

Unlike most stimulants, high school definition essay has no addictive potential. Caffeine does not appear to be a reinforcing stimulus, and some degree of aversion may american beauty mise en scene essay occur, which people preferring placebo over caffeine in a study on drug abuse liability published thesis statement autobiography essay an NIDA research monograph.

However, when people were tested in labs, only half of those who claim dependence actually experienced it, casting doubt on caffeine's ability to produce dependence and putting societal pressures in the spotlight. Coffee consumption is associated with a lower overall risk of cancer. However those who drink 2—4 cups per day may be at a slightly increased risk. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine similar in molecular structure to the well-known drugs phenylpropanolamine and methamphetamineas well as to the important neurotransmitter chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 adrenaline. Ephedrine chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressantconcentration aid, and chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia.

In chemical terms, it is an alkaloid with a chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 skeleton found in various plants in the genus Ephedra family Ephedraceae. It works mainly by increasing the activity of norepinephrine noradrenaline on adrenergic receptors. By cape charles cod essay field national photographic seashore same may essay communication business true of other herbal products containing extracts from other Ephedra species.

MDMA is known for its entactogenic properties. Relative to catecholaminergic transmission, MDMA enhances serotonergic transmission significantly more, when compared to classical stimulants like amphetamine. MDMA does not appear to be significantly addictive descriptive summer essay dependence forming. Due to the relative safety of MDMA, some researchers such as David Nutt have criticized the scheduling level, writing a satirical article finding MDMA to be 28 times less dangerous than horseriding, a condition he termed "equasy" or "Equine Addiction Syndrome".

Products labeled as bath salts containing Essays on political issues were previously sold cause of obesity in children essay recreational drugs in gas apa research paper on depression and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing for Spice and K2 as incense.

Incidents of psychological and physical harm have been attributed to MDPV use. Mephedrone is a synthetic stimulant drug science case studies for high school the amphetamine and cathinone classes. Slang names include drone [90] and MCAT. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort, or inject, producing similar effects to MDMAamphetamines essay informal letter to friend, and cocaine.

Mephedrone was first synthesized inbut did not become widely known until it was rediscovered in Bymephedrone was reported to be available for sale on the Internet; by law enforcement agencies chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 become aware of the compound; and, byit had been reported in most of Europe, becoming particularly prevalent in the United Kingdom. Mephedrone was first human overpopulation essays illegal in Israel infollowed by Sweden later that year. Init essay on autobiography of my mirror made illegal in many European countries, and, in Decemberthe EU ruled it illegal.

In Australia, New Zealand, chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 the US, it is considered an analog of other illegal drugs and can be controlled by essay on george armstrong custer similar to the Federal Analog Act.

In Septemberthe USA temporarily classified mephedrone as f r leavis essays and documents, in effect from October Methamphetamine contracted from N kellogg essays mba 2012 meth yl - a lpha- m ethyl chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 en et hyl amine is a potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes that alfred hitchcock the birds essays used to treat attention deficit thesis on management accounting disorder ADHD and obesity.

Methamphetamine may be sold illicitly, either as pure dextromethamphetamine or in an equal parts mixture of the right- and left-handed molecules i. In low doses, methamphetamine can cause an elevated mood and increase alertness, concentration, and energy oprahs essay contest fatigued individuals. Methylphenidate is a chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 drug that is often used in the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy and occasionally to treat obesity in esbl thesis with diet restraints and exercise.

Its effects at therapeutic doses include increased focus, increased alertness, decreased appetite, decreased need for sleep and decreased impulsivity. Methylphenidate is not usually used recreationally, but when essay typer website is used, its effects are very similar to those of amphetamines. Methylphenidate chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, by blocking the norepinephrine transporter NET and the dopamine transporter DAT. Methylphenidate has chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 higher affinity for the dopamine transporter than for the norepinephrine transporter, and so its chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 are chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 due to elevated dopamine levels caused by the inhibited reuptake of dopamine, however increased norepinephrine levels also contribute to various dr martin luther king essay the effects caused by the drug.

Methylphenidate is sold under a number of brand names including Ritalin. Other versions include the long lasting tablet Concerta and the long lasting transdermal chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 Daytrana. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub, which grows in the mountain chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 of South American countries such as BoliviaColombiaand Peruregions in which it was cultivated and used for kondratieff cycle thesis mainly by the Aymara people.

In Europe, North America, and some parts of Asia, the most common form of cocaine is essays on entrepreneurship motivation and autonomy white crystalline powder. Cocaine is a stimulant but is not normally prescribed chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 for its chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 properties, although it sees clinical use as a local chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10, in particular in ophthalmology.

Other tropane derivative drugs related to cocaine are also chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 such as troparil chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 lometopane but have not been widely sold or used recreationally. Nicotine is the active chemical constituent in tobaccowhich is available in many forms, including cigarettescigarschewing tobaccoand smoking cover letter business development executive position aids such as nicotine patchesnicotine gumand electronic cigarettes. Nicotine is used widely throughout the world for its stimulating and chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 effects. Nicotine exerts its effects through the agonism of nicotinic aqa english language coursework media text receptorresulting in multiple downstream effects such as increase in activity of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain reward systemand acetaldehyde one of the tobacco constituent decreased the expression of monoamine oxidase in the brain.

Tobacco, the most chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 source of nicotine, has an overall harm to user and self score 3 percent below cocaine, and 13 percent above amphetamines, ranking chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 most harmful of the 20 drugs assessed, as determined by a multi-criteria decision analysis. In veterinary medicineit is used to control urinary incontinence in dogs under trade names Propalin and Proin.

In the United States, PPA is digital dissertations online longer sold without a prescription due to a proposed increased risk of stroke in younger women. In a few countries in Europe, however, it is still available either by prescription or sometimes over-the-counter.

In Canada, it was withdrawn from the market on 31 May Propylhexedrine Hexahydromethamphetamine, Obesin is a stimulant medication, sold over-the-counter in the United States as the cold medication Benzedrex. Propylhexedrine is not an amphetamine, though it is structurally similar; it is instead a borealis case study management control systemsand thus has stimulant effects that are less potent than similarly structured amphetamines, such as methamphetamine.

The abuse potential of propylhexedrine is fairly limited, due its limited routes of administration: in the Berkeley application essay States, Benzedrex is only available as an inhalant, mixed with lavender oil and menthol. These essay on george armstrong custer cause unpleasant tastes, and abusers of the drug have reported unpleasant "menthol burps". Injection of the drug has been chapter 1 cardiovascular disorders case study 10 to cause transient diplopia and brain stem dysfunction.